NCRB report on crime
National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) report on Crime in India was recently launched.
Key findings of the report
- The Corona virus pandemic and subsequent lockdown resulted in a drop in traditional crimes like theft, robbery, and assault on women and children in 2020.
- There was a 28% increase in the registration of cases in 2020 in the country compared to 2019, primarily owing to the violation of COVID-19 norms.
- An almost 21-fold jump was recorded in cases of disobedience to the order duly promulgated by public servants.
- Crimes against Scheduled Castes showed an increase of 9.4%.
- offences against the Scheduled Tribe communities showed an increase of 9.3% over 2019
What is The National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB)?
- Headquarter: New Delhi
- Set-up: 1986
- Ministry: Ministry of Home Affairs
- Objective: To function as a repository of information on crime and criminals so as to assist the investigators in linking crime to the perpetrators.
- It was set up based on the recommendations of the National Police Commission (1977-1981) and the MHA’s Task Force (1985).
The ‘Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Rights Act)’:
Individual and community right certificates were recently handed over to the beneficiaries of Gujjar-Bakerwal and Gaddi-Sippi communities in Jammu and Kashmir under the Forest Rights Act.
- The Act is being implemented from December 1, 2020. Before 2019, many Central laws were not implemented in Srinagar.
About the Forest Rights Act:
The Act passed in 2006 grants legal recognition to the rights of traditional forest dwelling communities.
Rights under the Act:
Title rights – i.e. ownership – to land that is being framed by tribals or forest dwellers as on 13 December 2005, subject to a maximum of 4 hectares; ownership is only for land that is actually being cultivated by the concerned family as on that date, meaning that no new lands are granted.
Use rights – to minor forest produce (also including ownership), to grazing areas, to pastoralist routes, etc.
Relief and development rights – to rehabilitation in case of illegal eviction or forced displacement; and to basic amenities, subject to restrictions for forest protection.
Forest management rights – to protect forests and wildlife.
According to Section 2(c) of Forest Rights Act (FRA), to qualify as Forest Dwelling Scheduled Tribe (FDST) and be eligible for recognition of rights under FRA, three conditions must be satisfied by the applicant/s, who could be “members or community”:
- Must be a Scheduled Tribe in the area where the right is claimed; and
- Primarily resided in forest or forests land prior to 13-12-2005; and
- Depend on the forest or forests land for bonafide livelihood needs.
And to qualify as Other Traditional Forest Dweller (OTFD) and be eligible for recognition of rights under FRA, two conditions need to be fulfilled:
- Primarily resided in forest or forests land for three generations (75 years) prior to 13-12-2005.
- Depend on the forest or forests land for bonafide livelihood needs.
Process of recognition of rights:
- The gram Sabha, or village assembly, will initially pass a resolution recommending whose rights to which resources should be recognized.
- This resolution is then screened and approved at the level of the sub-division (or taluka) and subsequently at the district level.
The screening committees consist of three government officials (Forest, Revenue and Tribal Welfare departments) and three elected members of the local body at that level. These committees also hear appeals.
Australia will support India’s ‘Gaganyaan’ mission by tracking it through Cocos Keeling island.
There are blind spots due to which there is a possibility of not receiving signals, sources said. The data relay satellite tracking from Cocos Keeling Island is expected to help address the issue.
Satellites in orbit cannot pass along their information to the ground stations on Earth if it does not have a clear view of the ground station. A data relay satellite serves as a way to pass along the satellite’s information.
When was it announced?
- Formal announcement of the Gaganyaan programme was made by Prime Minister Narendra Modi during his Independence Day address on August 15, 2018.
- The initial target was to launch the human spaceflight before the 75th anniversary of India’s independence on August 15, 2022.
The objective of the Gaganyaan programme is to demonstrate the capability to send humans to low earth orbit on board an Indian launch vehicle and bring them back to earth safely.
Preparation and launch:
- Four Indian astronaut-candidates have already undergone generic space flight training in Russia as part of the Gaganyaan programme.
- ISRO’s heavy-lift launcher GSLV Mk III has been identified for the mission.
Relevance of a Manned Space Mission for India:
- Boost to industries: The Indian industry will find large opportunities through participation in the highly demanding Space missions. Gaganyaan Mission is expected to source nearly 60% of its equipment from the Indian private sector.
- Employment: According to the ISRO chief, the Gaganyaan mission would create 15,000 new employment opportunities, 13,000 of them in private industry and the space organisation would need an additional manpower of 900.
- Spurs research and development: It will thrust significant research in areas such as materials processing, astro-biology, resources mining, planetary chemistry, planetary orbital calculus and many other areas.
- Motivation: Human space flight will provide that inspiration to the youth and also the national public mainstream. It would inspire the young generation into notable achievements and enable them to play their legitimate role in challenging future activities.
- Prestige: India could potentially become the fourth country to launch a human space mission. The Gaganyaan will not only bring about prestige to the nation but also establish India’s role as a key player in the space industry.
PLI scheme for auto sector
The Union Cabinet has approved a Rs. 26,058 crore production-linked incentive (PLI) scheme to enhance manufacture of advanced technology and green vehicles, auto parts and drones.
- Benefits: It will attract Rs. 42,500 crore in fresh investment into the automobile and auto components industry over five years
- It will help create more than 7.5 lakh jobs.
- The scheme has been devised for both existing automotive firms and new investors.
- The ‘sales value linked’ scheme includes a ‘champion OEM’ incentive applicable on battery electric vehicles and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles.
- A ‘component champion’ incentive is for advanced automotive technology components.
What is the PLI scheme?
- The Product Linked Incentive (PLI) scheme aimS to boost domestic manufacturing under the government’s Atmanirbhar Bharat initiative.
- It was introduced in March 2020 and is expected to result in a minimum production worth more than $500 billion in five years.
- The scheme provides incentives to companies for enhancing their domestic manufacturing apart from focusing on reducing import bills and improving the cost competitiveness of local goods.
- PLI scheme offers incentives on incremental sales for products manufactured in India.
- Eligibility criteria for businesses under the PLI scheme vary based on the sector approved under the scheme.
- Some of the sectors for which PLI scheme has been approved are:
- Electronic or technology products
- Pharmaceuticals drugs
- Telecom & networking products
- Food Products
- High-efficiency solar PV modules
Input Tax Credit (ITC)
Recently, The Supreme Court said that refunds of tax credit cannot be claimed for input services under the Goods and Services Tax regime’s inverted duty structure.
- The SC has confirmed a Madras High Court judgment which upheld a fiscal formula included in the Central Goods and Service Tax Rules to execute refund of un-utilized Input Tax Credit (ITC) accumulated on account of input services.
What is Input Tax Credit (ITC)?
- ITC is a mechanism to avoid cascading of taxes. Cascading of taxes, in simple language, is ‘tax on tax’.
- Input Tax Credit refers to the tax already paid by a person at time of purchase of goods or services and which is available as deduction from tax payable .
- Input tax credit in relation to GST to a registered person means, the CGST, SGST/UTGST or IGST charged on any supply of goods or services or both made to him.
- It includes IGST charged on imports & tax payable under reverse charge mechanism.
- When one buys a product/service from a registered dealer we pay taxes on the purchase.
- On selling, we collect the tax.
- We adjust the taxes paid at the time of purchase with the amount of output tax (tax on sales) and balance liability of tax (tax on sales minus tax on purchase) has to be paid to the government.
- This mechanism is called utilization of input tax credit.
- If the tax paid on inputs is higher than the tax on the output, the excess can be claimed as a refund.
- Exceptions: A business under composition scheme cannot avail of input tax credit. ITC cannot be claimed for personal use or for goods that are exempt.