The UN Charter does not specifically mention the environment or sustainable development.
Both the General Assembly (UNGA) and the Economic and Social Council(ECOSOC –which is one of the 6 main organs of the United Nations) consider environmental questions.
The lead organization under the United Nations charter that deliberates on the environment related issues is the UN Environment Programme (UNEP is under the UN General Assembly organ of the UN) and the Commission on Sustainable Development is another forum for the countries to discuss the issues.
Economic and Social Council adopts a resolution to recommend the UN General Assembly to consider convening a UN conference on problems of the environment or UNGA may on its own pass a resolution to convene a conference on the issue.
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.
the IUCN was established on 5 October 1948, in, France
Its headquarters are in Gland, Switzerland
It was previously called the International Union for Protection of Nature– IUPN (1948–1956)
IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, and plays a role in the implementation of several international conventions on nature conservation and biodiversity.
(Note: It is not a member or part of the UN)
It is best known for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List, which assesses the conservation status of species worldwide.
RAMSAR CONVENTION, 1971
The Convention on Wetlands, called the Ramsar Convention, is an intergovernmental treaty that provides the framework for national action and international cooperation for the conservation and wise use of wetlands and their resources.
The Convention was adopted in the Iranian city of Ramsar in 1971 and came into force in 1975.
The RAMSAR Secretariat is based at the headquarters of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) in Gland, Switzerland.
World Wetlands Day is celebrated on February 2nd.
The Montreux Record
The Montreux Record is a register of wetland sites on the List of Wetlands of International Importance where changes in ecological character have occurred, are occurring, or are likely to occur as a result of technological developments, pollution or other human interference.
It is maintained as part of the Ramsar List.
Pong Dam Lake
Renuka Wetland (This is smallest wetland of India)
Jammu & Kashmir
Vembanad-Kol Wetland (Largest Wetland of India)
Loktak Lake (Montreux Record)
Harike Lake (Harike Wetland and the lake are manmade and were formed by constructing the head works across the Sutlej river, in 1953)
Keoladeo National Park (Montreux Record)
Point Calimere Wildlife and Bird Sanctuary
Upper Ganga River (Brijghat to Narora Stretch)
East Calcutta Wetlands
Nalsarovar Bird Sanctuary (Latest wetland added)
What is wetland?
Wetlands occur where water meets land. They include mangroves, peatlands and marshes, rivers and lakes, deltas, floodplains and flooded forests, rice-fields, and even coral reefs. Wetlands exist in every country and in every climatic zone, from the polar regions to the tropics, and from high altitudes to dry regions.
Major highlights of the Minamata Convention on Mercury include a ban on new mercury mines, the phase-out of existing ones, control measures on air emissions, and the international regulation of the informal sector .
Use of mercury in coal-fired power plants, small and l gold mines and cement production has to be reduced.
Countries with small and artisanal gold mines will have to devise strategies to reduce the use of mercury in gold production in three years
The use of mercury in products like batteries, CFLs, soaps, cosmetics and medical appliances like thermometer will be phased out by 2020
Convention was adopted and opened for signature on 10 October 2013
Convention is named after the Japanese city of Minamata, which experienced a severe, decades-long incidence of mercury poisoning after industrial wastewater from a chemical factory was discharged into Minamata Bay.
International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (Marpol):
International convention covering prevention of pollution of the marine environment by ships from operational or accidental causes.
MARPOL Convention was on 2 November 1973 adopted at International Maritime Organisation.
The Protocol of 1978 was adopted in response to frequent tanker accidents in 1976-1977.
As the 1973 MARPOL Convention had not yet entered into force, the 1978 MARPOL Protocol absorbed the parent Convention.
Convention was created by the International Labor Organization.
Its objective is to protect workers who are exposed during the course of their work to C6H6, also known as Benzene, a recognized carcinogen.
It was adopted in 1971 and entered into force in 1973.
It is Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS)
Adopted in 1979 and entered in to force in 1983
This Convention aims to build and strengthen global conservation efforts for migratory species in the air, on land, and in the seas
It is an international and intergovernmental treaty backed by the United Nations Environmental Programme.
It is Convention for Protection against Pollution in the Mediterranean Sea
It is a regional convention to prevent and abate pollution from ships, aircraft and land based sources in the Mediterranean Sea.
Convention was Adopted in 1976 and entered into force in 1978