The Nobel Peace Prize has been awarded nine times to the UN and its organizations. Name them
|1954||–||Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees|
|1965||–||UN Childrens Fund|
|1969||–||International Labour Organisation|
|1981||–||Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees|
|2005||–||International Atomic Energy Agency Mohammad El Baradei|
|2007||–||Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change – Al Gore Jr.|
Who pays for the UN and how is the contribution assessed?
The main source of funds for the regular budget of the UN is the contribution of Member States. Member States are assessed on a scale specified by the Assembly. The fundamental criterion on which the scale of assessments is based is the real capacity of Member States to pay. Rich countries pay more and poor countries pay less.
Is there any limit on payments of contribution to the UN ?
Yes. No single country can pay more than 22% of the total and the minimum is 0.01%.
Can a Member-State be penalised for delay or non-payment of dues?
If Member-States get too far behind with their dues they lose their voting rights in the General Assembly. However this has never happened.
What is the difference between UN Peace-keeping forces and other Armed forces?
There are some important differences
- UN Peace Keepers cannot take sides in a conflict.
- Countries in conflict must agree to the presence of Peace Keepers.
- UN Peace Keepers are generally lightly armed and cannot use force unless attacked.
- UN Peace Keepers may also be civilians and from the police because peace keeping includes a range of activities includig humanitarian assistance, monitoring elections, and observing and reporting on a situation.
Who commands the UN Peacekeeping Operations?
Peacekeeping Operations are established by the Security Council and directed by the Secretary- General usually through a special representative The UN has no military force of its own and member states provide the military and persons required for each operation. Peacekeepers wear their country’s uniform and are identified as peacekeepers only by a UN blue helmet or beret and a badge.
What is the Universal Declaration of Human Rights?
The Universal Declaration is a standard, but it is not law. However, several covenants, which include the main points of the Declaration, were signed in the 1960s and came into force in 1976 after most of the countries had ratified them. These countries are obliged to abide by them. They also gave the right to the UN to monitor whether or not Governments are observing their citizens’ Human Rights.
When was the Human Rights Declaration adopted?
On December 10, 1948 by the UN General Assembly. December 10 is observed as Human Rights Day around the world.
Can individuals complain to the UN for violations of their Human Rights?
Yes, communications containing complaints of violations of Human Rights are dealt with under the Economic and Social Council resolution 1503 (XLVIII), commonly known as the 1503 procedure and summarized and sent confidentially to the 53-member commission on Human Rights. Copies of the complaints are also sent to the named State. The identity of the writers is not disclosed unless they have consented to disclosure.
What is UNDP and its role ?
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the world’s largest multilateral source of grant funding for development cooperation. It was created in 1965. Its funds come from the yearly voluntary contributions of Member States of the UN or its affiliated agencies.
Who are the United Nations Volunteers?
Established by a 1970 resolution of the General Assembly the United Nations Volunteers (UNV) are the specialists and field-workers who work in development and humanitarian relief programmes of Governments, assisted by UN agencies.
What is UNEP ?
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) was established as a result of the UN Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm in 1972. UNEP’s main job is to catalyse environmental action and awareness worldwide. It has its Headquarters in Nairobi, Kenya and is the world’s leading environmental agency.
Why is the World Environment Day celebrated annually on 5th June?
To commemorate the anniversary of the opening day of the first UN Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm in 1972.
What is the UN Democracy Fund (UNDEF)?
UN Democracy Fund was established in early 2005 to promote democracy throughout the world by providing assistance for projects that consolidates and strengthens democratic governance. However, UNDEF does not promote any sample model of democracy. The fund officially began its work on March 6, 2006
What is the role of UNICEF?
United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) was created by the General Assembly during its first session in 1946 with a mandate for the survival, protection and development of children. As the only UN agency devoted exclusively to the needs of children, UNICEF speaks on their behalf and promotes the implementation of the convention on the child, which became international law in September 1990. UNICEF relies entirely upon voluntary public and government contribution. UNICEF was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1965.
What and where is the United Nations University?
The United Nations University (UNU) is headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. Established in 1973 UNU works to promote scholarly international and scientific cooperation to help solve urgent global problems.
In what way is the UNU different from a traditional teaching university?
It has no student of its own, no faculty, no campus. It operates through worldwide networks of academic and research institutions, including its own research and training centers and individual scholars, to address problems.
What means are available to the UN to help resolve conflicts?
(a) Member States may bring a conflict to the attention of the Security Council. The Security Council can then call upon countries in conflict to settle their differences peacefully (Article 33).
- If countries in conflict cannot come to an agreement on their own, they can take the dispute to the International Court of Justice which will decide who is right and who is wrong (Article 36).
- The Security Council may ask UN members to stop trading with the country or countries and to cut all forms of communication including by sea, air, rail, post, telephone, radio etc. Members may also be asked to close Embassies in the country or countries concerned (Article 41).
- If all this fails or is felt to be impractical the Security Council may dispatch neutral UN Peace Keepers to patrol safety or demilitarized zones, or to enforce or monitor cease-fire agreements until a permanent agreement is reached. However, Peace Keepers can only be sent if all countries in conflict agree to their presence.
- In some cases, the Security Council may authorize Member States to intervene in a conflict by using a regular military force. Forces are contributed by Member States. This has happened only twice, in Korea in 1950 and in Kuwait in 1991.
- Article 43 requires all Member States to make an agreed number of armed forces available to the Security Council for use in such cases.
Who is a refugee and who protects them on behalf of the UN ?
“A refugee is a person who owing to a well-founded fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country”.
The office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) was established. by the General Assembly in 1951 to protect refugees and promote durable solutions to their problems.
Name the seventeen agencies, known as “Specialized Agencies” – a term used in the UN Charter.
- International Labour Organisation (lLO).
- Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO).
- UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO).
- World Health Organisation (WHO).
- International Monetary Fund (lMF).
- International Civil Aviation Organisation (lCAO).
- Universal Postal Union (UPU).
- International Telecommunication Union (lTU).
- World Meteorological Organisation (WMO).
- International Maritime Organisation (IMO)
- World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO)
- International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)
- United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO)
The International Atomic Energy Agency (lAEA) and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) do not have the formal status of a specialised agency.
What is the World Bank?
The World Bank is a group of four institutions; The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), established in 1945, the International Finance Corporation (IFC), established in 1956, the International Development Association (IDA), established in 1960, and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA), established in 1988.
The Common objective of all four institutions is to help raise standards of living in developing countries by channeling financial resources to those countries from developed countries.
What was the Bretten Woods Conference?
It was a United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference of 44 Governments held in 1944 at Bretten Woods, USA. It led to the establishment of IBRD – the International Bank for Reconstruction
What is IMF?
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) founded in December 1945 is an inter-governmental organization to :
- promote cooperation on international monetary issues;
- to promote exchange stability;
- to facilitate balanced growth of international trade; and
- to make the general resources of the fund temporarily available to members to permit them to correct maladjustments in their balance of payments.
Was India among the original 51 Member States of the UN in 1945 ? Yes.
What is IAEA? Give its date of establishment, the place of its Headquarters and its basic objectives.
International Atomic Energy Agency was established on July 29, 1957 in Vienna. Its two main objectives are to seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world and to ensure that it is not used in such a way as to further any military purpose. It is administered by a 35-member Board of Governors headed by a Director General.
Name the first specialised agency of the United Nations?
ILO – International Labour Organisation. It was established in 1919 as an autonomous institution associated with the League of Nations. By an agreement approved on December 14, 1946, ILO became the first specialised agency associated with UN. Based at Geneva in Switzerland ILO works to promote social justice for working people everywhere. In ILO, workers, employers and Governments representatives have an equal voice in formulating its policies.
“Since war begins in the minds of men, it is in the minds of men that the defences of peace must be constructed.” Where does this well-known quotation come from.
From the constitution of UNESCO – United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization – which came into being on November 4, 1946, with Headquarters in Paris, France. UNESCO is involved in promoting education worldwide, preserving the world’s heritage and culture, improving accessibility to communication and supporting social scientific research.
What is Sustainable Development?
The UN Environment Programme (UNEP) defines sustainable Development as programmes that would “improve people’s quality of life within the carrying capacity of the earth’s life-support system”.
Who got the Nobel Peace Prize for his leadership in establishing the UN.
Mr. Cordel Hull, US Secretary of State in 1945.
What and when was the first resolution adopted by the UN General Assembly.
On January 24, 1946, UNGA adopts its first resolution and its main focus was peaceful uses of atomic energy and the elimination of atomic and other weapons of mass destruction.
What do you know about “An Agenda for Peace”? When and by whom was it issued?
On June 17, 1992, UN Secretary-General Mr. Boutros Boutros Ghali issued, for submission to the Member States – An Agenda for Peace. It recommends ways to improve the UN capacity for preventive diplomacy, peace-making and peace-keeping.
What is “An Agenda for Development” ?
It is a blueprint for improving the human condition. In response to the request of the General Assembly, the Secretary-General issued this report on May 6, 1994.
Which day of the year is celebrated as International Day of Peace?
The General Assembly has designated 21 September as the International Day of Peace.
What is UN’s initiative “Alliance of Civilizations”?
A new initiative – “Alliance of Civilizations” was launched in 2005 in response to concerns that extremists had been exploiting the sense of a widening gap between Islamic and Western societies with an objective to build bridges and promote a culture of respect.
The alliance was originally proposed by Spanish Prime Minister Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero and co-sponsored by Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan and both countries continue to act as co-sponsors.
AIDS kills more than 2 million people each year. Is there any UN programme to tackle this threat?
Ten UN agencies have pooled their resources in the UN Programme – called UNAIDS to combat HIV/AIDS. The participating agencies are UNICEF, WFP, UNDP, UNFPA, UNHCR, UNODC, ILO, UNESCO, WHO and the World Bank. In their Millennium Declaration, world leaders resolved by 2015 to have halted and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS and to provide special assistance to children orphaned by the disease.
Why was the Trusteeship Council set-up and why has it suspended its operations?
Trusteeship Council was set up by the UN to supervise the administration of Trust Territories and its major goal was to promote self-government or independence. On 1 November 1994 the Council has suspended its operation with the independence of Palau, the last remaining UN Trust territory. It will now meet as occassions required at the request of General Assembly or the Security Council
Who are the Messengers of Peace and Goodwill Ambassadors. Who appoints them.
They are prominent personalities who have lent their names, talents and time to support UN programmes. Messengers of Peace are appointed by the UN Secretary-General. The Goodwill Ambassadors are appointed by a cross-section of funds. Indian tennis player Vijay Amritraj was appointed UN Messenger of Peace on February 2001.
What is NPT? Has India signed it, if not why?
The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), the most universal of all multilateral disarmament treaties, was first opened for signature in 1968 and came into force in 1970. The NPT is the cornerstone of the global nuclear non-proliferation regime and the essential foundation for the pursuit of nuclear disarmament. India is not a signatory to NPT because India considers it a discriminatory treaty.
What are the special powers granted to Security Council under Chapter VII of the UN Charter?
Under Chapter VII of the Charter, the Security Council is empowered to take measures to enforce its decisions. It can impose embargoes and sanctions or authorise the use of military force by a coalition of Member States or by a regional organisation or arrangement. But the Security Council takes such action only as a last resort.
What is role of United Nations in the field of disarmament?
The UN General Assembly has two subsidiary bodies dealing with disarrnament issues: the first committee (Disarmament and International Security) and the Disarmament Commission.
The Conference on Disarmament is the international community’s sole multinational negotiating forum for disarmament agreements. The Conference successfully negotiated both the chemical weapons convention and the comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban. Treaty (CTBT). Of late the Conference has been unable to agree on a substantive programme due to lack of consensus.
How does the UN build peace through development?
While the war is the worst enemy of development, a healthy and balanced development is the best form of conflict prevention. A central tool of the UN action to consolidate peace is development assistance. The UN through its various agencies play a role in stimulating economic recovery and mobilising resources.