History Syllabus

History Syllabus for UPSC General Studies

History Syllabus for IAS prelims:

History Syllabus for Civil Services Preliminary Examination/History Syllabus for UPSC Prelims

The history section of IAS Prelims Exam GS Paper I Syllabus comprises questions from Indian art, culture, Ancient, Medieval and Modern Indian History. In this page, we give you the entire history syllabus for IAS prelims exam including ancient, medieval and modern history syllabus for UPSC exam.

Read on for syllabus for history in IAS prelims:


1 –  Prehistoric cultures in India

2 – Indus Civilization. Origins. The Mature Phase: extent, society, economy and culture. Contacts with other cultures.Problems of decline.

3 – Geographical distribution and characteristics of pastoral and farming communities outside the Indus region, from the neolithic to early iron phases.

4 – Vedic society. The Vedic texts; change from Rigvedic to later Vedic phases. Religion; Upanishadic thought. Political and social organisation; the evolution of monarchy and varna system.

5 – State formation and urbanization, from the Mahajanapadas to the Nandas. Jainism and Buddhism. Factors for the spread of Buddhism.

6 – The Mauryan Empire. Chandragupta; Megasthenes. Asoka and his inscriptions; his dhamma, administration, culture and art. The Arthasastra.

7 – Post-Mauryan India, BC 200- AD 300. Society: Evolution of jatis. The Satavahanas and state formation in Peninsula. Sangam texts and society. Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Parthians, Kushanas; Kanishka. Contacts with the outside world. Religion: Saivism, Bhagavatism, Hinayana and Mahayana Buddhism; Jainism; Culture and art.

8 – The Guptas and their successors (to c. 750 AD). Changes in the political organisation of empires. Economy and society. Literature and science. Arts.


1 – British expansion: The Carnatic Wars, Conquest of Bengal. Mysore and its resistance to British expansion: The three Anglo-Maratha Wars. Early structure of British raj: Regulating and Pitt’s India Acts.

2 – Economic Impact of the British Raj: Drain of Wealth (Tribute); land revenue settlements (zamindari, ryotwari, mahalwari); Deindustrialisation; Railways and commercialisation of agriculture; Growth of landless labour.

3 – Cultural encounter and social changes: Introduction of western education and modern ideas. Indian Renaissance, social and religious reform movements; growth of Indian middle class; The press and its impact: the rise of modern literature in Indian languages. Social reforms measures before 1857.

4 – Resistance to British rule: Early uprisings; The 1857 Revolt- causes, nature, course and consequences.

5 – Indian Freedom struggle-the the first phase: Growth of national consciousness; Formation of Associations; Establishment of the Indian National Congress and its Moderate phase;- Economic Nationalism; Swadeshi Movement; The growth of “Extremism” and the 1907 split in Congress; The Act of 1909 – the policy of Divide and Rule; Congress-League Pact of 1916.

6 – Gandhi and his thought; Gandhian techniques of mass mobilisation- Khilafat and Non-Cooperation Movement, Civil Disobedience and Quit India Movement; Other strands in the National Movement-Revolutionaries, the Left, Subhas Chandra Bose and the Indian National Army.

7 – Separatist Trends in Indian nationalist politics- the Muslim League and the Hindu Mahasabha; The post -1945 developments; Partition and Independence.

8 – Indian independence to 1964. A parliamentary, secular, democratic (republic the 1950 Constitution). Jawaharlal Nehru’s vision of a developed, socialist society. Planning and state-controlled industrialization. Agrarian reforms. The foreign policy of Non-alignment. Border conflict with China and Chinese aggression.


9 – Early Medieval India. Major dynasties; the Chola Empire. Agrarian and political structures. The Rajaputras. Extent of social mobility. Position of women. The Arabs in Sind and the Ghaznavids.

10 – Cultural trends, 750-1200, Religious conditions: the importance of temples and monastic institutions; Sankaracharya; Islam; Sufism. Literature and Science. Alberuni’s “India”. Art and architecture.

11-12. – Thirteenth and fourteenth Centuries: Ghorian invasions causes and consequences. Delhi Sultanate under the “Slave” Rulers. Alauddin Khalji: Conquests; administrative, agrarian and economic measures. Muhammad Tughlaq’s innovations. Firuz Tughluq and the decline of the Delhi Sultanate. Growth of commerce and urbanization. Mystic movements in Hinduism and Islam. Literature. Architecture, Technological changes.

13 – The fifteenth and early 16th Century: major Provincial dynasties; Vijayanagara Empire. The Lodis, First phase of the Mughal Empire: Babur, Humayun. The Sur empire and administration. The Portuguese. Monotheistic movements: Kabir; Guru Nanak and Sikhism; Bhakti. Growth of regional literatures. Art and Culture.

14-15. – The Mughal Empire, 1556-1707. Akbar: conquests, administrative measures, jagir and mansab systems; policy of sulh-i-kul. Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb: expansion in the Deccan; religious policies. Shivaji. Culture: Persian and regional literatures. Religious thought: Abul Fazl; Maharashtra dharma. Painting. Architecture. Economy: conditions of peasants and artisans, growth in trade; commerce with Europe. Social stratification and status of women.

16 – The decline of the Mughal Empire, 1707-61. Causes behind decline. Maratha power under the Peshwas. Regional states. The Afghans. Major elements of composite culture. Sawai Jai Singh, astronomer. Rise of Urdu language.

An Overview of the UPSC Civil Services Prelims question paper:

An analysis of previous question papers shows that the questions asked in the prelims exam were moderate to tough in their difficulty level. Frequent questions are on Modern Indian History.

• The candidates also need to understand the respective importance of various topics in Ancient History like the prehistoric period, Indus Valley Civilization, Vedic India, Mauryan and Gupta period.

• Vijayanagara Kingdom, Delhi Sultanate, Mughal Empire and Advent of Europeans assume importance in Medieval Indian History.

• Modern Indian History needs extensive and thorough attention with respect to both prelims and mains exams. Topics from the middle of the 18th century to present times and National Movement, significant events and prominent personalities should be given importance in Modern Indian History.

UPSC Mains GS I History Syllabus

Indian Heritage and Culture, History:

• Indian Culture: Salient features of Literature, Art Forms, and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

• Modern Indian History: Significant events, personalities and issues during the middle of the eighteenth century until the present.

• Indian Freedom Struggle: Stages, important contributors and contributions from different parts of the country.

• Post-independence consolidation and reorganization in the country.

• History of the World: Events, forms and effect on the society from 18th century like world wars, industrial revolution, colonization, redrawal of national boundaries, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism, etc.

History Books for IAS Mains

We also give you the important books for history for the UPSC civil services mains (GS 1):

• India’s Ancient Past – R.S. Sharma

• Indian Art and Culture – Nitin Singhania

• India’s Struggle For Independence – Bipan Chandra

• History Of Modern India – Bipan Chandra

• Facets of Indian Culture by Spectrum

• India Since Independence by Bipin Chandra

• Mastering Modern World History – Norman Lowe

• Themes of History  (NCERT Textbook of Standard XII)

• NCERT books for History

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